## What’s the The Composable Architecture (TCA) The Composable Architecture (TCA) is a modern software architecture pattern that allows developing scalable and maintainable iOS applications. TCA is built upon the principles of functional programming and provides a clear separation of concerns between the different components of an application. It was developed by Point-Free, a online video series on Swift and functional programming.

At its core, The Composable Architecture (TCA) is all about breaking down a complex app into small, reusable pieces that can be composed together. This approach makes it easier to reason about an app’s behavior and makes it more modular and testable.

The central idea behind The Composable Architecture (TCA) is that every part of an app should be a pure function of its inputs. This means that given the same inputs, the output should always be the same. In TCA, the inputs are represented by the app’s state and actions, and the output is the updated state.

TCA components

### State The state in TCA reflects the app’s current state. It is a struct that holds all of the information required to describe the app’s UI and behavior. Because the state is immutable, each time it changes, a new copy of the state is generated. The state can only be changed by a reducer function, this is why makes reasoning about an app’s behavior simpler.

In a ToDo app, for example, the state would usually include a list of todo items as well as their current status. (e.g., completed, pending, deleted). Other UI-related state, such as whether a specific screen is presently displayed, may also be included in the state.

struct TodoAppState: Equatable {
    var todoItems: [TodoItem]
    var isEditing: Bool

struct TodoItem: Equatable, Identifiable {
    let id: UUID
    var text: String
    var isCompleted: Bool


Actions describe the events that can occur in an app. User interactions, network requests, or any other event that can cause the state to alter are examples. Actions are straightforward structs that hold all of the information required to update the state.

Adding a new todo item, marking a todo item as finished, deleting a todo item, or navigating to a different screen are all examples of actions in our examplle todo app. Each move would be represented by a struct containing any pertinent data. (e.g., the text of the new todo item, the id of the item to be deleted).

enum TodoAppAction {
    case addTodo
    case removeTodo(IndexSet)
    case toggleCompleted(IndexSet)
    case setEditing(Bool)
    case updateTodoText(IndexSet, String)


Reducers are functions in TCA that take the existing state and an action and return a new state. The reducer is in charge of updating the state as a result of an operation. The reducer function should be a pure function, which means it should rely solely on its inputs and should have no secondary effects.

The reducer function in our todo app would take the current state and an action as input and return a new state that represents the change requested by the action. If the user adds a new todo item, for example, the reducer may generate a new state with the new item added to the list. If the user marks a todo item as completed, the reducer might update the status of the corresponding item in the list.

let todoAppReducer = Reducer<TodoAppState, TodoAppAction, TodoAppEnvironment> { state, action, environment in
    switch action {
    case .addTodo:
        let newTodo = TodoItem(id: UUID(), text: "", isCompleted: false)
        return .none
    case let .removeTodo(indices):
        state.todoItems.remove(atOffsets: indices)
        return .none
    case let .toggleCompleted(indices):
            .filter { indices.contains($0.offset) }
            .forEach { index, _ in
        return .none
    case let .setEditing(isEditing):
        state.isEditing = isEditing
        return .none
    case let .updateTodoText(indices, newText):
            .filter { indices.contains($0.offset) }
            .forEach { index, _ in
                state.todoItems[index].text = newText
        return .none


In TCA, environment is a struct that contains all of the dependencies that an app requires to operate. Network clients, databases, and other third-party tools are examples of this. It is easier to test and maintain the app if these dependencies are kept separate from the remainder of the app.

In our example, the environment may include a database service for persisting todo items, as well as any other services or APIs with which the app must communicate. The environment would be used to encapsulate and make these dependencies available to the remainder of the app.

struct TodoAppEnvironment {
    var mainQueue: AnySchedulerOf<DispatchQueue>

### Store

The store functions as a state machine, receiving actions from the user or the system and updating the todo app’s state appropriately. The state could be any data type that reflects the current state of the todo app, such as a list of todo items or a boolean flag showing whether a modal is presently displayed.

When an action is dispatched to the store, it first passes through any middleware that has been specified for the store. Middleware can be used to intercept and modify activities before they are processed by the Store. Middleware, for example, can be used to log actions, handle errors, or dispatch additional actions depending on the original action.

The action is passed to the store’s reducer after the middleware has handled it. The reducer is in charge of updating the state of the todo app depending on the dispatched action. The reducer is a pure function that accepts the current state and the dispatched action and returns a new state reflecting the action’s changes.

The reducer can return an effect in addition to updating the status of the todo app. Effects allow you to do things like make network requests or communicate with the device’s file system. Effects run outside of the reducer and can return extra actions to the store.

let todoAppStore = Store(
    initialState: TodoAppState(todoItems: [], isEditing: false),
    reducer: todoAppReducer,
    environment: TodoAppEnvironment(mainQueue: DispatchQueue.main.eraseToAnyScheduler())